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The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace).
The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.
He was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum.
He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his father's victory at Thurii over a rebellious band of slaves.
Julia died in 52 or 51 BC, and Octavius delivered the funeral oration for his grandmother.
In 46 BC, she consented for him to join Caesar in Hispania, where he planned to fight the forces of Pompey, Caesar's late enemy, but Octavius fell ill and was unable to travel.
Beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy.
Upon his adoption, Octavius assumed his great-uncle's name Gaius Julius Caesar.
Roman citizens adopted into a new family usually retained their old nomen in cognomen form (e.g., Octavianus for one who had been an Octavius, Aemilianus for one who had been an Aemilius, etc.).
He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia.
His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir, then known as Octavianus (Anglicized as Octavian).
Philippus never had much of an interest in young Octavius.